Introduction to Debugging in Swift

Debugging is an essential skill for any developer, and mastering it can greatly improve the quality and reliability of your software. In Swift development, understanding how to effectively debug can save you hours of frustration and help you quickly resolve issues. This blog post serves as a beginner’s guide to debugging in Swift, covering fundamental concepts such as using print statements, assertions, and basic configurations of the Xcode debugger. We’ll use an expense split app as a practical example to illustrate these concepts.

Why Debugging Matters

Before diving into the techniques, it’s important to understand why debugging is critical. Debugging allows you to identify and fix errors in your code, ensuring that your app behaves as expected. It also helps in understanding the flow of your program and verifying that your logic is sound.

Fundamental Debugging Techniques in Swift

Let’s explore some of the fundamental techniques for debugging in Swift, which you can apply to any project, including our example expense split app.

1. Using Print Statements

One of the simplest and most effective debugging techniques is to use print statements. This method involves inserting print statements in your code to output variable values or indicate that a certain part of the code was executed.

Example: In our expense split app, suppose we want to ensure that the total balance updates correctly after each transaction is added.

func addExpense(name: String, amount: Double) {
    let newExpense = Expense(name: name, amount: amount)
    print("Added \(name): $\(amount)")
    print("New Total Balance: $\(totalBalance)")

func updateTotalBalance() {
    totalBalance = expenses.reduce(0) { $0 + $1.amount }

Using print statements, we can track the values of expenses as they are added and observe the total balance updates.

2. Assertions

Assertions are a development tool that enables you to verify assumptions made by your program. An assertion will cause the application to terminate if a boolean condition evaluates to false, indicating that something has gone wrong in your logic.

Example: In the expense split app, you might assert that the expense amount should not be zero or negative.

func addExpense(name: String, amount: Double) {
    assert(amount > 0, "Expense amount must be greater than zero.")
    // Remaining implementation

Assertions help catch bugs during development by ensuring that critical conditions are met.

3. Using the Xcode Debugger

The Xcode debugger is a powerful tool for more sophisticated debugging. It allows you to pause the execution of your code at specified points and inspect the state of variables and memory.

Setting Breakpoints:

  • To add a breakpoint in Xcode, simply click next to the line number in your code editor where you want the code to pause. A blue arrow appears to indicate a breakpoint.
  • When you run your app in debug mode and it hits a breakpoint, Xcode will pause the execution. You can then inspect variables, step over lines of code, step into functions, or continue execution.

Example: Set a breakpoint after adding an expense to inspect the state of the expenses array.

func addExpense(name: String, amount: Double) {
    let newExpense = Expense(name: name, amount: amount)
    expenses.append(newExpense) // Set a breakpoint here

While paused, you can use the lldb console in Xcode to execute commands like p expenses to print out the contents of the expenses array.


Debugging is an integral part of developing reliable and robust software. By mastering basic debugging techniques like print statements, assertions, and using the Xcode debugger, you’ll be well-equipped to tackle bugs in your Swift applications. Start with these foundational skills in your expense split app or any Swift project, and gradually, you’ll become proficient in more advanced debugging techniques, enhancing your overall development expertise.


Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.